Sunday, July 12, 2020

Commentary Essay Samples

Commentary Essay SamplesCommentary essay samples are becoming quite common these days. This is because people who want to practice their writing skills are finding them useful. On the other hand, there are people who simply prefer them over formal writing courses that demand you to write a college essay.This form of the essay is more commonly known as a feedback or critique essay. The purpose of a feedback essay is to help the author understand what you think about his or her work. It does not have to be long, nor should it be too short.You can get several commentaries essay samples online from the internet. One of the things you need to remember when choosing one of them is to make sure it contains appropriate format. Format is a critical factor in getting your feedback essay to have the right touch.You can find essay samples which are formatted in MLA style. This type of essay will have a first paragraph, a conclusion, a bibliography, and a headnote. You should always make sure you use this format when using the sample essay.Commentary essay samples also come in other formats, but the ones in MLA or APA format are the most common. This is because they are widely accepted by the academic community. However, you can always get the impression that you are following a formal essay if you choose to use an essay sample that is not in these formats.Commentary essay samples are also available in several different subject areas. You can get them from other writing styles as well, so do not be discouraged if the one you are using is not in your area of expertise. They are there to help you learn the basic aspects of essay writing.Another thing you need to keep in mind when looking for these essays is that allof the essays you find on the internet are free of charge. If you think you are going to pay for something like this, it will probably not be a good idea to use it. This is because essays which cost money usually require you to do extra work.Commentary essay sample s do not have to be hard to understand. This is because the essay itself is designed to be simple and easy to read. Once you have read it once, you will be able to read it over again.

Wednesday, May 20, 2020

How Successful Were the Methods Used to Fight Apartheid in...

------------------------------------------------- How Successful were the Methods used to Fight Apartheid in South Africa? This essay will be discussing Apartheid and what methods were used to fight it, also whether they were successful or not. The word Apartheid is an Afrikaans word for apart or separateness. This was a law put in place by an Afrikaans Prime Minister called Dr. Daniel Malan, Dr. Malan put this law in place in 1948 to keep the Afrikaans race pure of any Black or Coloured blood, and there was always separation between blacks and whites but this law made it legal and legitimate. Apartheid was generally just a different approach to segregation. Blacks and Coloureds were not allowed to do certain things that they could do†¦show more content†¦In 1952 the ANC and Indian Congress reacted by creating the ‘defiance campaign ‘ which targeted six laws the two organizations thought unjust including the law above. By the end of 1952, 8065 protesters were arrested and sent to jail. The defiance campaign ended in 1953 and was not successful in ending Apartheid but it did have a ma jor effect on the ANC; 3000 members joined the ANC during these protests. (aylett 14-15) Nelson Mandela was a very important person in fighting Apartheid because he was a leader to black people as the ANC volunteer leader and part of the first black law firm in South Africa. He also created a new method of fighting Apartheid. Before the Massacre at Sharpeville peacefully and non-violent methods had been used to fight Apartheid but the Youth League did not think these methods were improving anything and moving too slowly for their liking. So violent methods were introduced to the now secret ANC organization and a new organization was created called Umkhonto we Sizwe or MK for short. The methods were to blow up buildings to do with the government like post offices, pass offices and electricity pylons making sure there were no people in them. Mandela left South Africa to recruit supports of the MK and when he came back to South Africa he was immediately arrested and accused of sabotage which Mandela admitted to doing. At the trial Nelson Mandela did not go out without aShow MoreRelatedGandhi, King and Mandela: What Made Non-Violence Work?797 Words   |  4 Pages This violence was usually successful however, there have been several situations, when violence failed, that protesters have had to turn to other methods. Non-violent protesting never seemed to be the right course of action until the ideology of Mohandas Gandhi spread and influenced successful protests across the world. Non-violent methods were successfully used, most notably, by Mohandas Gandhi, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Nelson Mandela. Mohandas Gandhi’s methods not only led to India’s independenceRead MoreMark Mandela, Martin Luther King, Jr., And Mohandas Gandhi2100 Words   |  9 Pagesworld leaders have used the strategy known as civil disobedience and other non harmful acts. With these strategies the leaders were able to successfully achieve their goal. Non-violence comes in many different forms such as, boycotts, freedom rides, sit-ins and marches. One other form of non-violence is to intentionally disobey the law in a calm and peaceful manner. Non-violence has attained many leaders goals in different eras. However, three of the most popular leaders used this strategy to influenceRead MoreNelson Mandela - Long Walk to Freedom Analysis Essay2976 Words   |  12 Pagesaspect of his struggle for freedom in South Africa. Most modern societies, Americans in particular, view acts of violence as inherently evil. They look to leaders such as Gandhi and Martin Luther King who brought change through n onviolent protest. However, the governments these leaders fought against had rights for citizens and thus the government did not outright murder the protestors. Nelson Mandela performed nonviolent protests for a decade in South Africa while the government violently attackedRead MoreSocial Movement Synopsis Of Mahatma Gandhi3401 Words   |  14 Pagesmovement when India was ruled by Britain. Gandhi led India to independence using nonviolent civil disobedience tactics, and movement laid a foundation for civil rights and freedoms across the world. He believed in using nonviolent actions in his fight for India’s independence and created the term â€Å"satyagraha,† which means â€Å"truth and love against force.† Gandhi believed violence would not just hurt one’s enemies but also oneself, which is why using nonviolence was essential to strengthen and purifyRead MoreExploring and Defining Racism Essay3417 Words   |  14 Pagesis colour prejudice, which is prejudice against people who have a different colour skin from your own; in Britain, the United States and South Africa this is usually referred to as a black / white issue. In South Africa, differences between people with black skin and white skin were institutionalised in law by the white apartheid governments of 1948 and beyond. Racism based on skin colour was also institutionalised in law in some of the southern states of America,Read MoreIf Inequality Is Increasing, Are We Likely to See More Armed Conflict?4618 Words   |  19 Pagesthe second part of the essay, a case study of South Africa spanning from the apartheid era to the present will serve to illustrate the theoretical insights from the first part. A decade-by-decade account will be given to show how political struggles transformed over time, which strategies various political actors implemented and how they were adapted to specific political, social, economic and cultural circumstances. The reason for choosing South Africa is because it represents a stunning example ofRead MorePatriotism and People Who Commit Acts of Civil Disobedience Essay2107 Words   |  9 Pagesand Locke looked to nature as the basis for how social and political systems should be understood (Berlin 94). Hobbes had a rather dim view of the state of nature, believing that people were inherently flawed and would fight and struggle without a strong r uler to form laws and force them to conformity. Despite this dim view, Hobbes also argued that the ruler should ensure individual freedom through the process of government so that people’s rights were preserved (Berlin 103). Locke, for his partRead MoreChristian Teachings Concerning Racism3045 Words   |  13 Pagesoriginated in the 18th century when Africans were sold in the slave trade, not because they were being prejudiced against, but because the merchants wanted to make a profit. But as economic profit was being made it became common to think of white people as more superior. This view then turned into beliefs, a system that justified slavery and the buildings of empires. When the British had power of countries such as India and Africa they argued that it was for a dignifiedRead MoreSouth Africa as a Result of Apartheid in the Film A Dry White Season2879 Words   |  12 PagesSouth Africa as a Result of Apartheid in the Film A Dry White Season â€Å"Brink reaches for that unexpected potent strand of Afrikaner thought: an almost religious repugnance toward governmental corruption. And by using a ‘very ordinary’ Afrikaner as victim, Brink proclaims that no one in South Africa is any longer safe (Redman 5).† Andre Brink’s powerful novel, A Dry White Season, was made into a film directed by Euzhan Palcy about ten years after it was written. Euzhan Palcy did an excellentRead MoreThe Role of Unions in South Africa19306 Words   |  78 PagesCollectivism, Unionisation and Union Influence: A decline? An investigation into the attitudes and perceptions of South African unionised employees in a single trade union. Shenaz Sheik Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree Masters- Industrial/Organisational Psychology (M.Soc.Sci) School of Psychology University of Kwa-Zulu Natal Howard College Supervisor: Mr. Dean Isaacs A decline in collectivism, unionisation and union influence? 1 Table of Contents 1. Chapter

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad - 1329 Words

Heart of Darkness is a novel written by Joseph Conrad. The setting of the book is in Belgian Congo, which was the most infamous European colony in Africa. This is a story about the protagonist Marlow’s journey to self discovery, and his experiences in Congo. Conrad’s story explores the colonialism period in Africa to demonstrate Marlow’s struggles. Along the way, he faces insanity, death, his fear of failure, and cultural contamination as he makes his was to the inner station. Conrad through the protagonist and antagonist life explores European imperialism and its effects to Africans. Marlow is the protagonist in the Heart of Darkness. He is depicted as independent-minded, idealistic, and skeptical about the people around him. Marlow is the narrative teller in the Heart of Darkness who uses his skills to be able to draw the audience to his tale. Marlow tells of his experience and the European prejudices he encountered around the world and this had has made skepti cal about imperialism. Marlow has been defeated by the world, and this makes him weary, cynical, and skeptical about everything. Marlow tells the story of Kurtz, and is portrayed by the author as a frequent story teller because he narrates in the majority of the book. The author paints him as a selfish and steady character. This can be seen whereby while in the outer station, he saw a group of Africans chained together and simply watched them without any compassion. He never felt pity for them but just walkedShow MoreRelatedHeart Of Darkness By Joseph Conrad1471 Words   |  6 PagesIn the story Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad a sailor decides to travel to Africa on a whim, using family connections he enlists as the captain of a ship travelling up the Congo River. The novella provides many themes, however is the text in itself racist? One of the main concepts portrayed in Heart of Darkness is the treatment of the natives of Africa and their image. This is most commonly shown through the disparity of the image between what is said in the novel and what can be read throughRead MoreHeart Of Darkness By Joseph Conrad Essay1371 Words   |  6 Pagesevery human and everything created by humans has two sides to it: the form and the substance. Joseph Conrad’s novella â€Å"Heart of Darkness† shows precisely how dangerous it is to put our trust in a concept, for example: colonization, without realizing that most of the time one only gets to see the form and not the substance. In this essay, my purpose is to demonstrate that â€Å"Heart of Darkness† by Joseph Conrad is mainly a novella about the discrepancy between substance and form. In order to prove my pointRead MoreHeart Of Darkness By Joseph Conrad1378 Words   |  6 PagesWoytassek AP English 12 Heart of Darkness Reading Log Author: Joseph Conrad Title: Heart of Darkness Original Publication Date: 1899 Kind of Writing: Heart of Darkness is a colonial novella of an expository narrative. Writer’s Purpose and Intended Audience Joseph Conrad wrote Heart of Darkness because he wanted to expose human temptation to experiment with darkness when one’s own desires overcome one’s morals. By writing from his own experience of exploring the Congo, Conrad draws conclusions thatRead MoreThe Heart Of Darkness By Joseph Conrad983 Words   |  4 PagesThe Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad is a story that takes place in the early 1890s and presents us with an odyssey of a traveler known as Marlow who confronts the dangers of the Congo jungle while also witnessing the wicked, inhumane treatment of the African natives. In the story, Marlow represents Joseph Conrad who had actually traveled up the Congo in 1890 and witnessed the European exploitation of the African natives firsthand. In the Heart of Darkness, Joseph Conrad exposes the inhumanityRead MoreHeart Of Darkness By Joseph Conrad1350 Words   |  6 Pagesyears, Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad was a treasured classic, with many honourable themes and messages, as the author reveals the true nature of humanity by following an European sailor’s journey through the dark jungles of Africa and down the river Congo, all while watching as his own humanity changes. As society has evolved, however, Heart of Darkness has come under scrutiny, as the language is quite racist. Chinua Achebe, writer of An Image of Africa: Racism in Conrad’s Heart of DarknessRead MoreThe Heart Of Darkness By Joseph Conrad968 Words   |  4 PagesJoseph Conrad’s novella The Heart of Darkness has been under controversy because of racial interpretations. The race factor in this novel has made some scholars and professors question the function the novella has in the classroom. However, Joseph Conrad had another view when writing the novel; to demonstrate how prejudice and dehumanizing the European culture is towards African Americans and their culture during this time period. European’s superior authority over African Americans is portrayedRead MoreHeart Of Darkness, By Joseph Conrad1306 Words   |  6 PagesWhat is the â€Å"horror† in Heart of Darkness, and what particular literary images develop that idea of horror in the novel? In Joseph Conrad’s, Heart of Darkness, there can be many literary images found within that develop the idea of horror. Heart of Darkness is noted for its horror within the Congo between the Africans and the Europeans. The horror in Heart of Darkness is a contribution of many ideas that are formed and contributed from the European colonists. The purpose of this essay aims to argueRead MoreHeart Of Darkness By Joseph Conrad1076 Words   |  5 PagesWritten in the late 1800’s, Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness is a novella about one man’s travel into the Congo Free State by way of the Congo River. The title â€Å"Heart of Darkness† actually holds two different meanings. Heart of Darkness is both a metaphor for a psychological â€Å"dark side† of man, and an allusion to Africa. The title suggests both a physical and mental reference. During the time the novel takes place, Africa was nick-named the dark continent because of how little the Europeans knewRead MoreHeart Of Darkness By Joseph Conrad Essay1483 Words   |  6 PagesJoseph Conrad, author of Heart of Darkness, intriguingly uses an unnamed narrator in his novel that clearly becomes of importance right away in the introduction. Conrad’s narrator chooses to speak of the historical period in which Roman colonization took over what we now know as Great Britain. By connecting a Roman colonization story to one almost 2000 years later talking about the Belgians in Africa, Conrad reveals one of his own themes in the novel. He proposes that the Romans and Belgians Read MoreHeart Of Darkness, By Joseph Conrad Essay2290 Words   |  10 PagesThe author of Heart of Darkness, Joseph Conrad, and the author of Things Fall Apart, Chinua Achebe, both present two stories written in completely different perspectives on the way whites and African’s view each other. These two men also lived in completely different time eras than each other, along with opposite life styles which affected their view on their writings, for Joseph Conrad lived in the late 1800’s, born in Ukraine, and Chinua Achebe in the early 1900’s, born in Nigeria. Man’s fallen

Arguing in Favour of Behaviourism

Question: Write an essay on Evaluation of cognitive approach and Behaviourism Arguing in favour of Behaviourism? Answer: Introduction In psychology behaviourism play a dominant role in analyzing the way behaviour could be analyzed with respect to the positive and negative understanding of situation. The major aspect that is, checked in the present condition includes understanding of the emotion, personality and learning. Cognitive psychology refers to the study of several processes of mind. Utilization of different languages, attention, perception and problem solving as well as decision-making skills of any individual has been included within the study of mind. This study of mind has been called as cognitive psychology from the time of ancient Greek. Comparing and contrasting Behaviourism and cognitive psychology The major aspect related to behaviourism is through the process of conditioning. Lewis, Haviland Barrett (2010) opines the dominant role in the approach is that the individuals are judged with the help of the external environment. The stimuli play the most important role in the approach of behaviourism. Observation is the basic rule in this approach along with the understanding of the observable behaviour. However, Goldstein (2014) argued that, the major focus area of cognitive psychology is the mental process of the human being. The process of mind can affect the behavior of the human being. Different perceptions and assumption of the human being always affect the behavior of the individual person within the society. The subjective aspect that is the emotions, cognitions and the subjective aspect play a vital in the behaviourism. There are different forms of behaviourism approach that includes classical behavioursim that was prevalent in the 20th century. Snyder, Lopez Pedrotti (2010) put forward This approach is one of the most important measurable aspects in the psychology that measures the reaction and behavior of the individuals. Well-known US psychologist John B. Watson proposed this particular approach in accordance to the reaction of the behaviours that is exhibited by different people. He has the belief that there are number of attributes that can be attached to the specific behaviours of the individuals. In such case, Watson tried to understand the ancient feelings attached to the consciousness. In this perspective, it is important to note the fact that consciousness is non- quantifiable. However, he advocated the behavioursim approach that helps in dealing with the all the elements tha t is related to the feeling, emotions and the gesture of the individuals and the behavior that they exhibit. Watson tried to amalgamate both the theories and the concept of the ancient along with the current thoughts those are important. In the beginning of nineteenth century, experimental psychology has been emerged as the evidence based discussion of the psychology. The study of higher mental processes has been emerged in this period. Therefore, cognitive psychology, behaviorism have been emerged as the important contribution towards this aspect of experimental psychology. Cognitive psychology refers to the study and experiment of mental process of human being. It is the aspect of cognitive revolution from the perspective of psychology and sociology of human being of the society. However, Estes (2014) stated that, the aspect of behaviorism dominated the study of American psychology. Behaviorism is the approach of living as well as non-living aspect of earth. Nevertheless, cognitive psychology deals with only human being. The mental process, language, attention have been reflected within the study of human psychology. The cognition is included within this study here, as behaviorism has lacked from this aspect. Howev er, the process of communication and information theory has been included within the study of cognitive psychology. There are primarily three types of behaviourism, which includes the methodological behavioursim, psychological behavioursim and analytical or logical behavioursim. The methodological behavioursim is one of the normative theories that is related to the use of the scientific knowledge in the psychology. In this type of behavioursim the major element of understanding is not the mental state of the individual. This motive of the behavioursim deals with the aspect that there is no relation with respect to the beliefs of the animals. In such case, the understanding of the scientific behavior is not related to the proper study of the private entities (Martin, 2010). The processes of cognitive psychology are as follows: Attention: According to the psychological thought, attention can be considered as focused awareness on the subset of available information of perception. Attention helps to filter the irrelevant data of the whole information. Every human being with the help of desired data that can be distributed to different processes of mind of the individual. Memory: As discussed by van der Maas et al. (2011), there are two types of memory within the mind of the human being. Short term and long-term memory are two types of memory those can be utilized by every human being. Working memory and long-term memory are very useful memory for every human being. Long-term memory is included within the procedural memory, semantic memory and episodic memory. Perception: On the other hand, Demacheva et al. (2012) stated that, perception is involved within different physical senses. It is the structural approach of cognitive psychology. Language: Language acquisition is another perspective that is very important as well as effective for the psychology of different people. Language is also varying between different people. There are different forms or phenomenon within the perspective of language acquisition. Psychological behavioursim is a form or program within the limitation of psychology. In this aspect, the understanding of the study deals with physical stimuli, learning histories along with the responses that are forms of reinforcements. The analytical or the logical behaviourism is within philosophy that is regarding the meaning or the mental terms that is relating to the semantics of the particular concepts. The behavioural tendencies are the relation that is established by the individuals with the family and the socialization process that they have inculcated. The individuals are part of the environmental stimuli in this part of behavioursim. In the cognitive psychology, major processes of mind are included within the process of attention, memory, perception, language, Meta cognition. Ulric Neisser formally has coined this term of cognitive psychology. Cognitive structure means the process of transforming as well as reducing and elaborating or storing the input of sense of human being. Meta cognition: On the other hand, Paap Greenberg (2013) stated that, cognitive approach is the modern approach for analyzing the behavior of the human being. Cognitive psychology mainly deals with the approach of thinking of different human beings. It is very modern approach within the aspect of human psychology. Therefore, the cognitive approach has included within stimulus, effects and the response of the human behavior within the individual body. The approach of cognitive psychology is based on the principle that the behavior of human being can be generated with the help of response and stimuli within the mind. Behavioursim is formed on the observable behaviours that can be collected and can be used in case of quantifying the data in the research. Apart from this the major techniques that is used for the approach of behavioursim includes the intervention of the felling, gestures, emotions and the way of reaction. The analysis of the behaviours helps in understanding the psychological effects that both adults and children may have in the mind. Wright (2010) mentions this also indulges the socialization process along with the external stimuli and the reaction projected by people. This method has been used in the recent cases to know about the wanted behavior and to identify the unwanted ones. This would help in generating the positive ideas by the therapists. Therapies can be coordinated with the help of the reaction that is projected by the individuals. Major assumptions of this theory of cognitive psychology are included within different scientific processes also. According to cognitive psychology theory, every type of behavior of human being can be elaborated with different techniques of science (Unsworth et al. 2014). On the other hand, the behavior of every individual can also be explained as some effective responses of external stimuli. Behavior of the people can be controlled by though process of the individual. There are genetic factors and psychological factors those can affect the behavioral process of every individual within the society. Therefore, cognitive psychology has focused upon the thought process of the individual. The basic area of assumptions that is tried by the approach of behavioursim includes the fact that psychology is a science and the perspective of science plays a dominating role in the same. The strengths of the approach includes that the scientific base helps in the empirical study of the people. Apart from this, there is objective measurement that could be tried by the approach. Apart from this, the analysis of the behaviour and the reaction can be, based on both humans and animals. Various renowned psychologists have carried out this study. The limitation may be the study may be at times deterministic and through the method of reduction. However, the scientific and the empirical aspect overpower this aspect. The key strength of the approach determines the relationships, language, culture and such other elements (Valentine, 1992). Cognitive psychology deals with the stimulus and response theory of communication. The communication process happens where the sender and receiver sends and receives messages in response of their stimuli, perception. Therefore, cognitive psychology has been included within this aspect of mental process. However, the first important theoretical effort within the psychology of information processing had been built by Donald Broadbents theory of Perception and Communication (Groome, 2013). On the other hand, De Houwer (2011) argued that, several psychologists have taken attempt for creating different explanations and rules of human behavior for evaluating the nature of behavior of every individual. Cognitive psychology deals with the thought process for the behavior. Every individual has different patterns of behavior within several conditions of life. Every individual behave differently in accordance with different situation and perspective. Every individual have different perception a bout different perspectives. Arguing in favour of Behaviourism In case of the bahviourism the major aspect of the understanding is that instead of only studying the mind the behaviours of the individuals are analyzed. This makes the study more relevant as all the aspects of the individuals that are the driving reason for the understanding of the way of behavior is, analyzed with precision. In case of the cognitive approach, the understanding is only based on the mind and there is a specific limitation to the same. In case of the behaviourist approach the major importance relates to the understanding of the way of behaving that also includes the gesture and the influence of the external stimuli. Hence, Mcghee (2001) argues in case of coming to conclusion the importance of the approach lies with the reduction of a number of aspects. The major understanding of the bahaviourist approach includes the fact that all the elements that is responsible for the way of behaving of the individuals is understood with respect to the environment. The study or th e assessment is based n the factors like the family, peers, groups the socialization process and the method of dealing with all the relationships. This approach is not constrained to the individual mind and discusses the understanding the nature and the behavior of the individuals. The assessment of the reasons and the understanding of the specific behaviour is the cause of the different levels of interaction and the relationship that is established by the individuals. Gross (1995) refers Behaviorism is part of a materialist theory and includes the idea of postulation no mental substance. Bahviourism is one of the approaches in psychology that make use of the physical substance and so it helps in clearly understanding the changes in behaviour. The aspect that favours the approach is that of the law of parsimony which entails that the approaches that use fewer perspectives are the one that could be judged effectively. In such case, bahviourism is the approach that helps in analyzing the fewer aspects and this makes the study much more credible. The decision making process in the study is helpful in understanding the ideas. The analysis of the bahviours in case of bahviourism includes the study and the research f the individual based on language, decision making and the problem solving efficiency of the people. This theory is use by the teachers and the therapists to analyze nature and the bahviours in the modern day. This helps in understanding the perspective of the behavior of the individuals along with analysis. The teachers make use of this method to know about the psychological change relating to behavior of the students. This also helps the counsellor in analyzing the change and the peer pressure that leads to the behavioural change. In such case, it might be noted that even in the present case then there are certain assumptions in the modern psychology that is derived from the aspect of bahviourism (Bem de Jong, 2013). The essay plan Introduction Behaviourism is the aspect that deals with the condition and the nature of feelings, gesture and way of behaving. This is important in case of analyzing the reason of behavioural change in the individuals. Martin, Carlson Buskist (2010) mentions this is one of the approach that help in analyzing the phobias, behavior therapy, behavior modification, education, language, relationships, addiction and aggression. These aspects help in understanding the behavior that is determined by the conditioning or the environment. This type of approach does not exactly allow the lab experiments but there is an ethical consideration that is followed in the particular approach. On the contrary, the mental process is the main aspect that is studied in the perception, memory, creativity and the problem solving capacity of the mind. In case of the Cognitive Psychology, it is the most important aspect that helps in understanding the perception of the mind. The creativity of the individuals is another attribute that helps in getting the developmental psychology that is relating to the mind. Criteria of evaluation The evaluation of the Behaviourism is based on the scientific validity. In case of the empirical nature of Behaviourism it has been found that most of the approach that helps in the analysis is the understanding. The quotient of science in the particular approach is less. The most important aspect in the present approach is the process of observation (Comer, Gould Furnham, 2013). The fruitfulness of the approach is the analysis that can be drawn from the people and the understanding of the people and the reason that they have certain behavioural aspect. The ability of the approach delves with the physical substance and the feeling that is inculcated through the process of understanding the nature of the coherence. The coherence of the people or the individual is through the process of understanding the motive and the impact of the physical substance. The pre philosophy of Behaviourism includes the fact that there has to be certain aspects like the belief and the cultural influence t hat change the behavior of the individuals largely. In case of the Cognitive Psychology it is the most fruitful important understanding the observation relating to the mind. The mind and the aspects that drive the mind is the most important aspect in the present approach. The memory is the aspect that can be analyzed through the process of the working memory. In such case, the scientific ground is the most important element (Glassman Hadad, 2009). In case of the development of the child or the understanding of the minds of the student both the approach are crucial. However, in case of the change in the behaviour it is the Behaviourism as an approach that, helps in dealing with the situation. Beckett Taylor (2010) mentions the analysis of the child and the development through can be also with respect to the mind that is the cognitive aspect. The quotient of intelligence can be through the method of cognitive approach as the development of mind and intelligence can be related with the approach. In case of the child, development the aspect of peer pressure can be ensured through the Behaviourism. This is the underatnding of the specific or differential exhibition of the behavior of the child. Main evaluation Behaviourism Pros Cons This approach is scientific largely with the change in the behaviours. The meditational processes are missing. In such case, the analysis of the behavior of the individuals based on the meditation is missing largely. This approach is largely applicable in the present day psychology and the therapies of the therapists. This approach does not depend on the biological drives. The hormones and the drive relating to the hormones are missing (Guey, Cheng Shibata, 2010). The major understand is through the emphasis on the objective. This approach does not have the deterministic approach. The approach needs to be free which is largely missing in the approach. There are number of experiments that cannot be tried with the help of support of the models and theories. The experimentation and the extent of the experiments are largely missing. The comparison can be tried and experiment with the humans and the animals. This also helps in the understanding of the perspective of the animals and the reason that they also behave in a particular way (Chaplin, 2010). In this approach there can be an analysis based on the humans and the animals. This is not effective as the creatures are different along with the perception that the humans retain. Animals on the other hand cannot speak and expression is the only method of exhibiting the behaviours. This approach is a process of reduction that does not help in attaining the full knowledge of the information. Cognitive psychology Pros Cons The approach is empirical and scientific The theory only deals with the mind and the reason that the kind has certain inhabitations Most of the implication is practical and so the application of the approach is related to the realistic implication of the mind The theory is only interested in the mental processing The treatment of the mind is the major aspect that helps in gaining the desired personality of the individuals This approach lacks the validity of the ecology This approach is narrow and does not follow the intentions and the behvaiour The approach does not look at all the perception of the a person (Woollard, 2010) Hence, it might be said that after going through the pros and cons behaviourism is the approach that helps in understanding the physical and the psychological analysis of the environment. This seeks to understand the change in behaviour. Conclusion In the recent days, it is one of the major aspects to apply behaviourism in the study of changing behaviour of the people. In schools and in the analysis of kids or children the change in behaviour plays a dominant role. Hence, from the study conducted above it may be said that even in the recent days more than cognitive approach behaviourism has its own place for the analysis of individuals. Reference list Beckett, C., Taylor, H. (2010).Human growth and development. Sage. Bem, S., de Jong, H. L. (2013).Theoretical issues in psychology: An introduction. SAGE Publications Limited. Chaplin, J. P. (2010).Dictionary of psychology. Dell. Comer, R., Gould, E. Furnham, A. (2013). Psychology. Sussex: Wiley. De Houwer, J. (2011). Why the cognitive approach in psychology would profit from a functional approach and vice versa.Perspectives on Psychological Science,6(2), 202-209. Demacheva, I., Ladouceur, M., Steinberg, E., Pogossova, G., Raz, A. (2012). The applied cognitive psychology of attention: a step closer to understanding magic tricks.Applied Cognitive Psychology,26(4), 541-549. Estes, W. K. (2014).Handbook of Learning and Cognitive Processes (Volume 4): Attention and Memory. Psychology Press. Glassman, W. E Hadad, M. (2009). Approaches to Psychology (5th Edition). Maidenhead: Open University Press. Goldstein, E. (2014).Cognitive psychology: Connecting mind, research and everyday experience. Cengage Learning. Groome, D. (2013).An introduction to cognitive psychology: Processes and disorders. Psychology Press. Gross, R. (1995). Themes, Issues and Debates in Psychology. London: Hodder Stoughton Guey, C. C., Cheng, Y. Y., Shibata, S. (2010). A triarchal instruction model: integration of principles from Behaviorism, Cognitivism, and Humanism.Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences,9, 105-118. Lewis, M., Haviland-Jones, J. M., Barrett, L. F. (Eds.). (2010).Handbook of emotions. Guilford Press. Martin, G., Carlson, N. Buskist, W. (2010). Psychology. (4th Edition). Harlow: Pearson. Martin, R. A. (2010).The psychology of humor: An integrative approach. Academic press. Mcghee, P. (2001). Thinking Psychologically. Basingstoke: Palgrave Paap, K. R., Greenberg, Z. I. (2013). There is no coherent evidence for a bilingual advantage in executive processing.Cognitive psychology,66(2), 232-258. Snyder, C. R., Lopez, S. J., Pedrotti, J. T. (2010).Positive psychology: The scientific and practical explorations of human strengths. Sage Publications. Unsworth, N., Fukuda, K., Awh, E., Vogel, E. K. (2014). Working memory and fluid intelligence: Capacity, attention control, and secondary memory retrieval.Cognitive psychology,71, 1-26. Valentine, E. R. (1992). Conceptual Issues in Psychology. London: Routledge. van der Maas, H. L., Molenaar, D., Maris, G., Kievit, R. A., Borsboom, D. (2011). Cognitive psychology meets psychometric theory: on the relation between process models for decision making and latent variable models for individual differences.Psychological review,118(2), 339. Woollard, J. (2010).Psychology in the Classroom: Behaviourism. Routledge. Wright, R. (2010).The moral animal: Why we are, the way we are: The new science of evolutionary psychology. Vintage.

Thursday, April 23, 2020

The Digital Music Distribution Revolution free essay sample

What industry conditions lead to the revolution In audio distribution? Which stakeholders stand to benefit most (or least) from this revolution? The MPH technology gave Its users several advantages such as the chance to transfer music to the new digitally recorded format, while also providing a way to download and play music digitally on personal computers. For example, software programs gave listeners the ability to convert CDC to the new digital format, whereas broad base MPH licensees allowed easy access to encoders and decoders for customers.In addition, Anapest provided a way to share freely MPH files on the internet, while added features in tunes, such as those that only allowed upload to a maximum of five computers, prevented their users from mass distribution of the recorded materials. Other applications prevented Amps from being played on non-pod MPH players or prevented customers from emailing them (Kenosha, 2013). Music became cheaper to access because the MPH format began offering It at reasonable prices online. We will write a custom essay sample on The Digital Music Distribution Revolution or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Apples Pod ultimately allowed for the success of Tunes. Podiatrist became tool that Individual artists could use to make their bedposts available for their listeners to download without harming their copyrights (Kenosha, 2013). Several things contributed to the audio distribution revolution In regards to the competitors in the recorded music business. These included information technologies allowing high-speed, low cost distribution, storage and advertising options that allowed artists to by-pass expensive record labels (Schilling, 2010). Customers were the stakeholders that benefited most from the digital music revolution, because they loud get much more music for cheaper prices.In addition, independent musicians benefited greatly, because they were able to put their music out to the public even if they did not have a formal recording contract. Third, sellers of digital media such as Apple reaped great rewards, because they had a new source of revenue as customers rapidly purchased such devices (Schilling, 2010). Those stakeholders who p robably benefited less Included major record labels. They did not hold contracts for more and more music sales and/or were sold without royalty payments to these companies.The easy access this technology gave consumers to independent artists created high competition for the artists already signed to record contracts. This resulted in artists losing royalties due to music pirating (Schilling, 2010). In summary, the transformation of music, songs and albums, into the new digital recorded, MPH, format led to an industry revolution in audio distribution. The end users, customers who bought and listened to the music, ultimately were the greater winners in this revolution (Devote, 2010). Why did the music stores created by the record labels fail to attract many subscribers?What, if anything, should the record labels have done differently? Failure to offer music from anyone except their own labels drove customers away, because music enthusiasts often Like a range of music. Failure of consumers to know which labels belonged to which record co mpany also kept consumers from using these stores. The record companies could have avoided both of these problems by having joint ventures with other labels where consumers could stores included using proprietary file formats, greatly limited digital rights management schemes, and limited selections as compared to those offered byAnapest. Failure to use the MPH format by the large label companies for their songs evolved into major issues for these big label music stores (Devote, 2010). Other problems also existed, as various new services did not really understand the value of the digital music market. In addition, the big players in the old record company market were overstressed in recapturing their old advantage in the music industry instead of impressing the new digital age. The internet, by virtue of its nature, had the capacity to offer vast opportunities for exploring new music.These new digital revise were constructing their services based on market shares. The old record labels, in their actions, influenced the startups in t he digital music industry, forcing them to offer music around what the major labels were already offering (Callas, 2012). On the other hand, successful services such as tunes and Spottily recognized early on the potential force of the digital market. They also understood the need in this new market to provide access to a remarkable depth and breadth of music, embodied particularly by leading Indies bands (Callas, 2012).What will determine owe long the success of the pod and tunes endures? Should Apple allow its pods to play non-tunes songs? Should Apple allow tunes songs to play on non-pod MPH players? The pod popularity has steadily declined as other gadgets that play music have been introduced to the market such the cell phone, the Mac, the pad and the phone. Apple, however, seems to think they can still make some money and have not withdrawn the pod from the market even though it cannot connect to the internet or access services such as tunes (Ziegler, 2012).In addition, both the pod and the tunes store are easily copied. Since Apple does not own the music it sells, it must rely on other suppliers, making their success heavily dependent upon successful branding and the network externalities associated with the pod-tunes installed base. Given the large installed base of Pods, the restricted compatibility between tunes and pods allows the creation of a DOD barrier for competitors. If the system were opened up so that tunes could play on any device and pods could play any song, both the device and the tunes service would be subject to much greater pricing pressure.Therefore, it makes sense or Apple to resist opening them up, however students would be quick to point out that if a major competitor, or a set of competitors builds an assault on Apples dominant position in this market, Apple may be forced to open up in order to be competitive (Melissa A, 2010). There are factors that will determine the longevity of success of the pod and tunes. First, one thinks of Apples cool factor that many younger generations consumers enjoy.Second, their well planned marketing strategies have also allowed success with a strong relationship with music labels. Third, other factors of long enjoyed success will be described by its use of digital formats, competitive prices for song and album downloads, and strong licensing agreements with music labels that enable the ability to of fer one-stop digital music shopping for consumers. Apple does allow its pod to play non-tunes songs. If one burns music to blank audio CDC, however, tunes will not allow users to burn non-tunes songs. Apple should allow this is a mute point.Apples pod line already owns 73% of the MPH players market share. They achieved this by only allowing tunes music to be played on pods Vito, 2010). The pod will play . MPH and . MPH, as MPH files are tunes songs that a person originally downloaded, and . MPH files are either converted files that one converted Into tunes or files that one did not get through tunes. The pod supports a variety of audio formats: AC, Protected AC (from tunes Store), HE-AC, MPH, Audible, Apple Lossless, BIFF (as found on CDC), and WAVE (Answers, AAA).An pod can play music from any source so long as it is in a format that the pod recognizes. Many retailers who provide an MPH download service, such as Amazon, eave an option in their software to automatically add purchases to the tunes software to aid adding the music to an pod (Answers, Bibb). Why would musicians sign away their copyright privileges to their songs through Creative Commons? The exposure of being widely distributed may be more valuable to independent artists than revenues if they protected their music (Schilling, 2010).Creative Commons is a nonprofit corporation dedicated to making it easier for people to share and build up the work of others. Creative Commons allows people, musicians ND auth ors, to create their own license and provides up to six free licenses to designate how authors want to share their work (US, 2013). First, Creative Commons developed licensing schemes that will allow copyright holders, including musicians, to license their works for the public to share at varying levels of openness.Since Creative Commons allows musicians to make it known that their music is available for downloading and distribution without the risk of infringement suits, musicians would sign away their copyright privileges to their songs because of the varying degrees of openness that consumers would be able to share their music. This gave freedom for potential customers to get the music they wanted without the risk of lawsuits (Devote, 2010). How is podiatrist likely to impact the profitability of recorded music, radio broadcasting, or other types of audio transmissions?Whereas podiatrist may increase the ease and attractiveness of listening to music and other broadcasts that are not protected by copyright, it also provides an additional medium for piracy of content that is owned by others. In the short run, t hen, podiatrist could diminish the profitability of recorded media. On the other hand, in the long run sophisticated poetasters may come about that would dominate the market. In addition, providers of digital content may develop sophisticated digital rights management technology that would prevent pirating.

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Cry the Beloved Country essays

Cry the Beloved Country essays Essay Cry, The Beloved Country The controversial novel, Cry the Beloved country, originally published in 1948 by Alan Paton has received just as much praise as condemnation. The novel, thought long since antiquated by some, remains a classic still, after 50 years. Patons novel has been continually critiqued, compared, and contrasted against not only his own later work, but also with other South African novelists Paton, who grew up in Pietermartizburg, Natal, South Africa; always enjoyed the beauty around him. At the age of 22, he began a teaching career, first at a native school in the village of Ixopo, then at Pietermartizburg College. Years later he abandoned teaching to begin a career as a reformatory worker. He was appointed principal to the diepkloof reformatory, where he attempted to loosen the restrictions placed on the boys and emphasizes preparation for life outside the reformatory walls. He traveled extensively to study reformatories throughout the world. It was on one of these trips that he was inspired to write cry the beloved country, the novel that made him famous. In the 1930s and 40s South Africa was a nation torn apart by racial segregation, enforced inequality, and prejudice. A wave of crime, mostly by black natives and largely upon wealthy white citizens, was leading to a kind of national panic among the white minority. Patons novel finds its setting in this fragile society, where fear and hatred diminish the beauty and good of the nation. Paton created a major conflict in the novel, Cry the Beloved Country. He moves the readers to believe that there is an inner uncertainty within the main characters. He chooses to romanticize and put into perspective the conflict between the Europeans, and the native south Africans. This conflict is one of morality and an undeniable change from old tradition to new ways. As in any society, change in general promotes fear. The chan...

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Free sample - Euthanasia. translation missing

Euthanasia. EuthanasiaEuthanasia is the intentional termination of life of a very sick person's life in order to relieve them of their suffering. This is usually in cases where the person has an incurable condition. There are other instances where some people want their life to be ended. In many cases, it is carried out at the person's request but there are times when they may be too ill and the decision is made by relatives, medics or, in some instances, the courts. Euthanasia is classified in three different ways. These include voluntary, non-voluntary, or involuntary. Voluntary euthanasia is also termed as assisted suicide and refers to a situation whereby a patient brings about his or her own death with the assistance of a physician. In this case, the patient consents to his or her life being terminated. Those who believe in voluntary euthanasia argue that if an individual has a tormenting illness, he may have intolerable pain that may be a burden to his life. Terminal illness also makes one to be too dependent on others especially the close relatives and friends. It is argued that a patient who has been on a life support machine for long may have voluntary wish to die. However he may not be able to commit suicide without assistance, and therefore voluntary euthanasia may be applied if the patient had expressed such a wish. Non-voluntary euthanasia is conducted where the consent of the patient is unavailable. This is implemented when a person is not in a position to decide or have his wishes known. It mostly occurs in cases where the person is in a coma, the individual is too young, senile, or has severe brain damage. If an individual is disturbed mentally to such an extent, then they should be assisted through non- voluntary euthanasia (Kaveny Murphy, 1997). Involuntary euthanasia is conducted against the willpower of the sick person. In this case a patient's life is ended without the patient's knowledge and consent. Often, the patient may be unconscious or extremely sick to depict what is going on. Voluntary, non-voluntary and involuntary euthanasia can further be categorized into passive or active variants. Passive euthanasia may involve the withdrawal of basic treatments such as the administration of antibiotics that are necessary for life continuity. For active euthanasia, poisonous substances that are lethal may be used to terminate individual’s life and hence making this the most controversial means. There are arguments about whether euthanasia is a moral issue or not. These arguments are brought out in the arguments against euthanasia which puts through the issues that life is sacred, the act devalues life, it is against the will of God, the act is against the best interests of the person, it can be abused due to pressure from other interested parties, improved palliative care can be a solution to the suffering of the patient, if unregulated doctors may use it as a loophole not to be committed in their noble duty to care for patients. Arguments against euthanasia have been supported by current practical arguments which states that:  · Proper application of painkilling measures may render euthanasia useless.  · There's no way of properly regulating euthanasia  · Allowing euthanasia will lead to less good care for the terminally ill  · Allowing euthanasia undermines the commitment of doctors and nurses to saving lives  · Euthanasia may become a cost-effective way to treat the terminally ill  · Allowing euthanasia will discourage the search for new cures and treatments for the terminally ill  · Euthanasia undermines the motivation to provide good care for the dying, and good pain relief  · Euthanasia gives too much power to doctors  · Euthanasia exposes vulnerable people to pressure to end their lives  · Moral pressure on elderly relatives by selfish families  · Moral pressure to free up medical resources   Patients who are abandoned by their families may feel euthanasia is the only solution (Kaveny Murphy, 1997). There are also ethical arguments about euthanasia. some of the ethical arguments states that euthanasia weakens society's respect for the sanctity of life, accepting euthanasia accepts that some lives (those of the disabled or sick) are worth less than others, voluntary euthanasia is the start of a slippery slope that leads to involuntary euthanasia and the killing of people who are thought as undesirable, euthanasia might not be in a person's best interests, euthanasia affects other people's rights, not just those of the patient (Moreno, 1995). On the contrary arguments for and against euthanasia seem to be superseded by the principle of double effect. The principle of double effect; also commonly referred to as double-effect reasoning, involves ethical criteria for analyzing the permissibility of acting on behalf of the patient. For instance, terminating a patient’s pain will lead to an effect of death, which should be avoided under normal circumstances. However, for this principle to hold there are certain things which must be in place. The criteria mention that an action may be justifiable when the harmful effects cannot be separated from good effects. The nature of the act should however meet the basic moral ethics and harm should be minimized. In the society today euthanasia is also met with negative reception in the religious perspective of life. Religious people don't argue that we can't kill ourselves, or get others to do it. They know that we can do it because God has given us free will. Their argument is that it would be wrong for us to do so. They believe that every human being is the creation of God, and that this imposes certain limits on us. Our lives are not only our lives for us to do with as we see fit. To kill ourselves, or to get someone else to do it for us, is to deny God, and to deny God's rights over our lives and his right to choose the length of our lives and the way our lives end. Religious people in the soci ety may at times discredit euthanasia due to the belief that human beings are bound to suffer, as it brings them closer to God. Other arguments against euthanasia state that we need to demystify the myths and stigma associated with terminal illness by helping the patient and their relatives to cope and face the inevitable challenges (Panzer, 2000). This will help in adjusting to the sad scenario that is experienced upon the diagnosis of a terminal illness. It is important to encourage the patient to remain hopeful of the eventual healing. Talking to loved ones about ones illness will help interact freely with those who care about you. It is important to learn about the physical effects of the illness and control the symptoms in order to reduce pain, with loss of appetite and fatigue. In the American society today euthanasia has been met with morals, values and religious undertones. As a national Policy euthanasia is not supported in America. America as a nation stands firmly on the line of morality and societal values. However, there some states in America which have legalized euthanasia. The argument for making euthanasia legal is that the individual's freedom entails liberty or choice in all matters as long as the rights of any other person are not infringed upon. In the contrary, the argument that does not support the legalizing of euthanasia is that it negates the value of human life. It therefore follows that euthanasia may be abused by people who have wrong criminal intentions. A financial motive is sometimes advanced in favor of euthanasia (Keelan, 2006). It is quite expensive to maintain terminally ill persons and this may amount to wastage of resources when such patients succumb to their suffering in the long run. It costs money from the family of the government to keep terminally sick people on life support which will be wasted resources if they eventually die. These arguments informed the passing legal framework in three states of America, Washington, Oregon and Montana. However, looking at the national level public opinion on euthanasia is purely informed by religious affiliations and culture. In Christian perspective the church and especially the catholic and the Anglican Church euthanasia is not advocated for. According to the catholic catechism an act that is administered to reduce pain by causing death goes against the human dignity and it is disrespect to God. The error of judgment into which one can fall in good faith does not change the nature of this murderous act, which must always be forbidden and excluded (Murray, 2005).   However, the Lutheran church in November 9, 1992 adopted the famous "End of life decisions'' which seem to support euthanasia as a way of relieving those with severe suffering out of terminal illness. This included several decisions just to quote but one: When medical judgment determines that artificially-administered nutrition and hydration will not contribute to an improvement in the patient's underlying condition or prevent death from that condition, patients or their legal spokespersons may consider them unduly burdensome treatment. In these circumstances it may be morally responsible to withhold or withdraw them and allow death to occur (Benoway, 1992). The Orthodox Church firmly does not support euthanasia as it is perceived as committing murder by the people involved. This act is therefore sinful in nature (Perrett, 1996). Islam and Buddhism also respects the sanctity of life and therefore euthanasia is firmly prohibited and is seen as a violation of God's work and interfering with human kind. Euthanasia has since time immemorial attracted serious legal battles. In Montana in the United States of America a lawsuit was brought against the local government to allow euthanasia. This land mark judgment gave way for competent terminally ill patients to make decisions about when to take their lives. On December 5, 2008, state District Court judge Dorothy McCarter ruled in favor of a terminally ill Billings resident who had filed a lawsuit with the assistance of Compassion Choices, a patient rights group. The ruling illustrates that competent, terminally ill patients have the right to self-administer fatal doses of medication to as prescribed by a physician (Kaveny Murphy, 1997). Physicians who prescribe such medications have not broken any legal law to prompt their punishment. Recommendation Euthanasia is an act which continues to elicit reactions from the world over and this comes from mainly religious affiliation and culture. On one hand this research has found out that ethical arguments which points out that if supported it can lead to undesirable execution of people, it can also erode the professionalism of medical personnel who should be committed to offering care to patients. On the other hand this research points out that even practical arguments against euthanasia clearly shows that proper measure for pain reduction makes euthanasia unnecessary. Since there are no proper measures for the regulation of euthanasia, it is almost impossible to justify the reason of applying it regardless of the situation. References    Appel, J. (2004). "A Duty to Kill? A Duty to Die? Rethinking the Euthanasia Controversy of 1906". Bulletin of the History of Medicine, Volume 78, Number 3, pp. 610–634.   Benoway, E. (1992). End of Life Decisions. Journal of Lutheran Ethics. Vol. 602 (54), 25-33. Colabawalla, B. (2008). Understanding voluntary euthanasia: a personal perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kaveny, C., Murphy, J. (1997). "Assisted Suicide, Euthanasia, and the Law.† Theological Studies. Vol. 45(23), 34-35. Keelan, N. (2006). The euthanasia debate. The University Standard. Vol. 12 (814), 54-60. Kevorkian, D. (2007). Euthanasia: the wrong way. The New York times. Vol.102; 231, 78-81. Moreno, J. (1995). Arguing Euthanasia. London: Simon Schuster Murray, D. (2005). "Archbishop says Church cannot back euthanasia." Times Online. Vol. 92 (27), 42-50. Panzer, P. (2000). Hospice patients alliance. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Perrett, R. (1996). "Buddhism, euthanasia and the sanctity of life". J Med Ethics. 22 (5): 309–13.